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Recommendations for pre-exposure vaccination against orthopoxviruses, such as monkeypox virus, are summarized in this report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Two vaccines are currently approved (JYNNEOS and ACAM2000), with JYNNEOS recommended over ACAM2000 based on literature showing slightly favorable efficacy and fewer adverse events. Following the primary vaccine series, a booster dose of JYNNEOS is recommended every 2 years for individuals exposed to more virulent types of orthopoxviruses.
Individuals currently recommended to receive pre-exposure vaccination include research laboratory personnel working with orthopoxviruses, clinical laboratory personnel conducting testing for orthopoxviruses, and specific healthcare personnel administering orthopoxvirus vaccines or designated to be part of orthopoxvirus response teams.
Certain laboratorians and health care personnel can be exposed to orthopoxviruses through occupational activities. Because orthopoxvirus infections resulting from occupational exposures can be serious, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has continued to recommend preexposure vaccination for these persons since 1980, when smallpox was eradicated. In 2015, ACIP made recommendations for the use of ACAM2000, the only orthopoxvirus vaccine available in the United States at that time (3). During 2020-2021, ACIP considered evidence for use of JYNNEOS, a replication-deficient Vaccinia virus vaccine, as an alternative to ACAM2000. In November 2021, ACIP unanimously voted in favor of JYNNEOS as an alternative to ACAM2000 for primary vaccination and booster doses. With these recommendations for use of JYNNEOS, two vaccines (ACAM2000 and JYNNEOS) are now available and recommended for preexposure prophylaxis against orthopoxvirus infection among persons at risk for such exposures.
Use of JYNNEOS (Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine, Live, Nonreplicating) for Preexposure Vaccination of Persons at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2022
MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2022 Jun 03;71(22)734-742, AK Rao, BW Petersen, F Whitehill, JH Razeq, SN Isaacs, MJ Merchlinsky, D Campos-Outcalt, RL Morgan, I Damon, PJ Sánchez, BP Bell