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In this cross-sectional study that investigated the association between dietary inflammatory potential and poor periodontal health, NHANES 2011–2014 and NHANES 2001–2004 were used as discovery and validation datasets, respectively. In the discovery dataset, the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) score had a non-linear positive relationship with moderate/severe periodontitis (Pnon-linearity<.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, participants from the discovery population in the most pro-inflammatory E-DII tertile had a significantly increased risk of periodontitis compared with those in the lowest tertile (ORtertile3vs1: 1.53, 95% CI, 1.33–1.77). Relatively stronger associations were seen in older adults and males.
The consumption of a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by the E-DII score, was associated with moderate/severe periodontitis in a representative population of US adults. In addition to plaque control, dentists could recommend an anti-inflammatory diet as a possible strategy to address primary prevention and a disease-associated therapy opportunity.
To investigate the association between dietary inflammatory potential and poor periodontal health.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
A cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of participants was performed. NHANES 2011-2014 (n = 7081) and NHANES 2001-2004 (n = 5098) were used as discovery and validation datasets, respectively. The energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) score was calculated for each participant based on 24-h dietary recalls to assess diet-associated inflammation. Periodontitis was defined by the CDC/AAP using clinical periodontal parameters. Natural cubic spline was applied to identify any non-linear associations of the E-DII score with moderate/severe periodontitis. Furthermore, interaction analyses were performed by age, gender, and race/ethnicity to explore the moderating roles of these factors.
In the discovery dataset, a non-linear positive relationship with periodontitis was identified for the E-DII score (pnon-linearity < .001) after adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with those individuals in the lowest tertile of E-DII, participants in the highest tertile who consumed a pro-inflammatory diet were 53% more likely to be periodontitis (OR tertile3vs1 = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.33-1.77). The validation dataset showed similar associations. Relatively stronger associations were seen in older adults and males.
Consuming a pro-inflammatory diet indicated by the E-DII score is associated with periodontal disease in the U.S. general adult population.