High-risk (HR) prostate cancer (CaP) patients are at greatest risk for occult metastases and disease progression. Radical prostatectomy (RP) provides benefit, but remains of unknown oncologic value compared with other options. We investigated outcomes of RP for HR, very-high-risk (VHR), or metastatic CaP.
Included are 1,635 patients undergoing RP between January 2012 and December 2018 (prior to widespread availability of CaP-specific PET imaging). VHR CaP was defined as having ≥2HR features, >4cores of biopsy Gleason ≥4+4, or primary Gleason pattern 5. Metastatic CaP was defined by radiographic evidence of N1 and/or M1 CaP and grouped as cN1Many and cN0M1. Pre-treatment, perioperative, and early oncologic data were compared. Patient/tumor characteristics were compared according to risk groups using Chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Kaplan-Meier analysis of cancer progression and multivariable analyses were performed.
Length of stay >2days and readmission following RP was 10.8% and 5.5% for patients with HR or higher CaP. Median time to progression was 3.9 months (IQR:1.6-13.9), and 2-year progression-free probability was 67% for HR, 53% for VHR, 51% for cN1Many, and 58% for cN0M1. In multivariable analysis, VHR (hazard ratio:1.70; P < 0.0001) and cN1Many (1.96, P < 0.0001) were highly significant predictors of progression, while cN0M1 was not (P = 0.54), compared with non-metastatic HR CaP. Limitations include selection biases and imprecision of imaging methodologies.
Most patients with HR or higher CaP remain progression-free 2 years after RP, with acceptable perioperative outcomes. Progression-free survival was similar in cN1 and VHR patients, better with non-metastatic HR CaP, and between these for cN0M1 patients indicating the imprecise clinical staging occurring with conventional imaging modalities alone.