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This literature review evaluated medications and addictive substances that have the potential to induce or aggravate sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism and also those medications which potentially attenuate bruxism (sleep and/or awake).
Ultimately, there were three types of bruxism delineated: sleep bruxism, awake bruxism, and nonspecified bruxism; and, while associations were found, the authors concluded that evidence-based data are insufficient to make definite conclusions regarding medications and addictive substances inducing or aggravating bruxism or attenuating bruxism.
This abstract is available on the publisher's site.
Bruxism is a repetitive jaw‐muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. It can occur during sleep, indicated as sleep bruxism, or during wakefulness, indicated as awake bruxism. Exogenous risk indicators of sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism are, among others, medications and addictive substances, whereas also several medications seem to have the potential to attenuate sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism. The objective of this study was to present a narrative literature on medications and addictive substances potentially inducing or aggravating sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism and on medications potentially attenuating sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism. Literature reviews reporting evidence or indications for sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism as an adverse effect of several (classes of) medications as well as some addictive substances and literature reviews on medications potentially attenuating sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism were used as starting point and guidelines to describe the topics mentioned. Additionally, two literature searches were established on PubMed. Three types of bruxism were distinguished: sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and non‐specified bruxism. Generally, there are insufficient evidence‐based data to draw definite conclusions concerning medications and addictive substances inducing or aggravating sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism as well as concerning medications attenuating sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism. There are insufficient evidence‐based data to draw definite conclusions concerning medications and addictive substances inducing or aggravating sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism as well as concerning medications attenuating sleep bruxism and/or awake bruxism.