Accumulating evidence suggests that adult vaccinations can reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Alzheimer's disease related dementias.
To compare the risk for developing AD between adults with and without prior vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria, with or without pertussis (Tdap/Td); herpes zoster (HZ); or pneumococcus.
A retrospective cohort study was performed using Optum's de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database. Included patients were free of dementia during a 2-year look-back period and were≥65 years old by the start of the 8-year follow-up period. We compared two similar cohorts identified using propensity score matching (PSM), one vaccinated and another unvaccinated, with Tdap/Td, HZ, or pneumococcal vaccines. We calculated the relative risk (RR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for developing AD.
For the Tdap/Td vaccine, 7.2% (n = 8,370) vaccinated patients and 10.2% (n = 11,857) unvaccinated patients developed AD during follow-up; the RR was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.68-0.72) and ARR was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.02-0.03). For the HZ vaccine, 8.1% (n = 16,106) vaccinated patients and 10.7% (n = 21,273) unvaccinated patients developed AD during follow-up; the RR was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.76) and ARR was 0.02 (95% CI, 0.02-0.02). For the pneumococcal vaccine, 7.92% (n = 20,583) vaccinated patients and 10.9% (n = 28,558) unvaccinated patients developed AD during follow-up; the RR was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.71-0.74) and ARR was 0.02 (95% CI, 0.02-0.03).
Several vaccinations, including Tdap/Td, HZ, and pneumococcal, are associated with a reduced risk for developing AD.