The phase III ACHIEVE trial conducted in Japan was one of six prospective studies included in the International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant Therapy collaboration, which explored whether 3 months of adjuvant fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) therapy would be noninferior to 6 months of treatment in patients with curatively resected stage III colon cancer. We report the final analyses of survival and long-term safety.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either 3 or 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy (modified [m]FOLFOX6 or CAPOX, as selected by the treating physician). Random assignment was stratified according to number of involved lymph nodes, center, regimen, primary site, and age. The primary end point was disease-free survival, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population. Overall survival (OS) was a secondary end point.
The modified intention-to-treat population comprised 1,291 patients: 641 in the 6-month treatment group and 650 in the 3-month treatment group. Median follow-up for this analysis was 74.7 months. Five-year OS rates were comparable: 87.0% in the 3-month treatment group and 86.4% in the 6-month treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.20; P = .51). Subgroup analysis of OS did not reveal a significant interaction between baseline characteristics and treatment duration. Peripheral sensory neuropathy lasting longer than 5 years was more common in the 6- compared with 3-month treatment group (16% v 8%, respectively), and in those receiving mFOLFOX6 compared with CAPOX (14% v 11%, respectively).
In Asian patients, shortening adjuvant therapy duration from 6 to 3 months did not compromise efficacy and reduced the rate of long-lasting peripheral sensory neuropathy. In this setting, 3 months of CAPOX therapy is an appropriate adjuvant treatment option.