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The authors of this review summarize the current data pertaining to post-COVID conditions, sometimes referred to as long COVID, chronic COVID-19, and long-haul COVID along with other terms. This review describes the epidemiology, risk factors, and proposed biological mechanisms for post-COVID conditions as well as the diagnostic assessment and treatment for the most common sequelae.
Post-COVID syndrome is emerging as a common and prevalent condition that can affect multiple organ systems and cause more than 50 different symptoms. This thorough review provides a practical and comprehensive approach to the management of post-COVID syndromes that can be feasibly implemented by healthcare providers.
Post-COVID conditions continue to afflict patients long after acute severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) infection. Over 50 symptoms across multiple organ systems have been reported, with pulmonary, cardiovascular, and neuropsychiatric sequelae occurring most frequently. Multiple terms have been used to describe post-COVID conditions including long COVID, long-haul COVID, postacute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, long-term effects of COVID, and chronic COVID-19; however, standardized assessments and treatment algorithms for patients have generally been lacking. This review discusses the epidemiology and risk factors for post-COVID conditions and provides a general overview of the diagnostic assessment and treatment of specific manifestations. Data derived from the multitude of observational studies and scientific investigations into pathogenesis are providing a clearer understanding of the distinct phenotypes of post-COVID conditions. Insight gained from these studies and ongoing interventional trials continues to lead to the development of clinical protocols directed toward improving COVID-19 survivors' quality of life and preventing or reducing long-term morbidity.