The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been designated as a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) since December 2019, when an outbreak of pneumonia cases emerged in Wuhan, China. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global health crisis, devastating the social, economic and political aspects of life. Many clinicians, health professionals, scientists, organizations, and governments have actively defeated COVID-19 and shared their experiences of the SARS-CoV2.
Diabetes is one of the major risk factors for fatal outcomes from COVID-19. Patients with diabetes are vulnerable to infection because of hyperglycemia; impaired immune function; vascular complications; and comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in the human body. Hence, the use of angiotensin-directed medications in patients with diabetes requires attention. The severity and mortality from COVID-19 was significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in those without. Thus, the patients with diabetes should take precautions during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Therefore, we review the current knowledge of COVID-19 including the global and regional epidemiology, virology, impact of diabetes on COVID-19, treatment of COVID-19, and standard of care in the management of diabetes during this critical period.