The United States currently has more confirmed cases of COVID-19 than any other country in the world. Given the variability in COVID-19 testing and prevention capability, identifying factors associated with mortality in patients requiring mechanical ventilation is critical. This study aimed to identify which demographics, comorbidities, markers of disease progression, and interventions are associated with 30-day mortality in COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation.
Adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted to one of the health system’s intensive care units and requiring mechanical ventilation between March 9, 2020 and April 1, 2020, were included in this observational cohort study. We used Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney U tests to compare patient characteristics between deceased and living patients and multiple logistic regression to assess the association between independent variables and the likelihood of 30-day mortality.
We included 85 patients, of which 20 died (23.5%) within 30 days of the first hospital admission. In the univariate analysis, deceased patients were more likely ≥60 years of age (p < 0.001), non-Hispanic (p = 0.026), and diagnosed with a solid malignant tumor (p = 0.003). Insurance status also differed between survivors and non-survivors (p = 0.019). Age ≥60 and malignancy had a 9.5-fold (95% confidence interval 1.4-62.3, p = 0.020) and 5.8-fold higher odds ratio (95% confidence interval 1.2-28.4, p = 0.032) for 30-day mortality after adjusted analysis using multivariable logistic regression, while other independent variables were no longer significant.
In our observational cohort study of 85 mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, age, and a diagnosis of a solid malignant tumor were associated with 30-day mortality. Our findings validate concerns for the survival of elderly and cancer patients in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, where testing capabilities and preventative measures have been inconsistent. Preventative efforts geared to patients at risk for intensive care unit mortality from COVID-19 should be explored.