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Published in Diabetes

Expert Opinion / Commentary · October 01, 2015

Cardiovascular Outcomes and Type 2 Diabetes: EMPA-REG OUTCOME

Written by
Silvio E. Inzucchi MD


Additional Info

  1. Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, et al for the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Investigators. Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes [published online September 17, 2015]. N Engl J Med. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1504720.
  2. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New Engl J Med. 1993;329(14):977-986.

  3. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998; 352(9131):837-853.
  4. Dormandy JA, Charbonnel B, Eckland DJ, et al for the PROactive investigators. Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005; 366(9493):1279-1289.

  5. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of Intensive Glucose Lowering in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358(24):2545-2559.
  6. Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, et al. Effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the ADVANCE trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007; 370(9590): 829-840.

  7. Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, et al for the VADT Investigators. Glucose Control and Vascular Complications in Veterans with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2009. 360(2):129-139.
  8. Green JB, Bethel MA, Armstrong PW et al for the TECOS Study Group. Effect of Sitagliptin on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015; 373(3):232-242.
  9. Pfeffer M, et al. The Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome – The Results of ELIXA. Paper presented at: American Diabetes Association 75th Scientific Sessions 2015. June 5-9, 2015; Boston, MA.

  10. White WB, Cannon CP, Heller SR, et al for the EXAMINE Investigators. Alogliptin after Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369(14):1327-1335.
  11. Scirica BM, Bhatt DL, Braunwald E, et al for the SAVOR-TIMI 53 Steering Committee and Investigators Saxagliptin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. N Engl J Med 2013; 369(14):1317-1326.

Disclosure statements are available on the authors' profiles:

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