Use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) as adjunct therapy to insulin in type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been previously studied. In this study, we present data from the first free-living trial combining low-dose SGLT2i with commercial automated insulin delivery (AID) or predictive low glucose suspend (PLGS) systems.
In an 8-week, randomized, controlled crossover trial, adults with T1D received 5 mg/day empagliflozin (EMPA) or no drug (NOEMPA) as adjunct to insulin therapy. Participants were also randomized to sequential orders of AID (Control-IQ) and PLGS (Basal-IQ) systems for 4 and 2 weeks, respectively. The primary endpoint was percent time-in-range (TIR) 70-180 mg/dL during daytime (7:00-23:00 h) while on AID (NCT04201496).
A total of 39 subjects were enrolled, 35 were randomized, 34 (EMPA; n = 18 and NOEMPA n = 16) were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle, and 32 (EMPA; n = 16 and NOEMPA n = 16) completed the trial. On AID, EMPA versus NOEMPA had higher daytime TIR 81% versus 71% with a mean estimated difference of +9.9% (confidence interval [95% CI] 0.6-19.1); p = 0.04. On PLGS, the EMPA versus NOEMPA daytime TIR was 80% versus 63%, mean estimated difference of +16.5% (95% CI 7.3-25.7); p < 0.001. One subject on SGLT2i and AID had one episode of diabetic ketoacidosis with nonfunctioning insulin pump infusion site occlusion contributory.
In an 8-week outpatient study, addition of 5 mg daily empagliflozin to commercially available AID or PLGS systems significantly improved daytime glucose control in individuals with T1D, without increased hypoglycemia risk. However, the risk of ketosis and ketoacidosis remains. Therefore, future studies with SGLT2i will need modifications to closed-loop control algorithms to enhance safety.