For patients with glaucoma, metabolic syndrome was associated with higher intraocular pressure and greater central corneal thickness. Patients with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have ocular hypertension.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether glaucomatous optic neuropathy, also known as glaucoma, and ocular hypertension are more likely to occur in patients with metabolic syndrome.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Patients in Olmsted County, MN, were identified as having metabolic syndrome based on diagnosis codes, laboratory values, and/or medication use to meet 3 or more of the 5 standard criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome: systemic hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and central adiposity defined by increased body mass index. Patients with glaucoma, including primary open angle, low tension, pigment dispersion, and pseudoexfoliation, were identified using diagnostic codes. The charts of patients with glaucoma were individually reviewed to collect visual acuity, intraocular pressure, cup to disc ratio, central corneal thickness, visual field mean deviation, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and treatment of intraocular pressure. Patients with ocular hypertension were separately identified and similarly evaluated.
For patients with glaucoma, those with metabolic syndrome had higher intraocular pressure and greater central corneal thickness compared with those without metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for central corneal thickness, there was no longer a significant difference in intraocular pressure between groups. Metabolic syndrome was also associated with the diagnosis of ocular hypertension, and although central corneal thickness trended higher in patients with metabolic syndrome, it did not attain statistical significance.
In Olmsted County, though metabolic syndrome was associated with ocular hypertension and higher intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma, the results were likely related to a thicker central corneal in this patient population.