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This is a case report of a 64-year-old woman who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after COVID-19 infection. She had a history of vitiligo and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Her coronavirus infection was associated with anosmia and ageusia as well as influenza-like symptoms. Her acute neurologic symptoms resolved with high-dose corticosteroids as well as intravenous immunoglobulin.
Neurologists must be aware of potential autoimmune neurologic complications from COVID-19.
– Kyle Binder, MD
This abstract is available on the publisher's site.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune disease of the CNS that often after viral infections and mainly affecting children. ADEM is characterized by the onset of multifocal neurologic symptoms, encephalopathy, with brain MRI showing demyelinating abnormalities in the acute phase.1 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel entity caused by the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is characterized by influenza-like symptoms, pneumonia, and in severe cases respiratory insufficiency.2 Many neurologic complications occurring in patients with COVID-19 have been described,3 and it has been hypothesized that, in some cases, SARS-CoV-2 might exhibit a neurotropic behavior.4