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Expert Opinion / Commentary · December 04, 2021

2021 Top Story in Oncology: Surgically Preventing HPV-Related Anal Cancer in HIV-Infected Individuals

Written by
Arnavaz Hajizadeh Barfejani PharmD
David Henry MD
Siobhan Prasad MSc


Additional Info

  1. Yanik E, Katki H, Engels E. Cancer risk among the HIV-infected elderly in the United States. AIDS. 2016;30(10):1663-1668.
  2. Coutlée F, de Pokomandy A, Franco EL. Epidemiology, natural history and risk factors for anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Sexual Health. 2012;9(6):547.
  3. Binda GA, Gagliardi G, Dal Conte I, et al. Practice parameters for the diagnosis and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) on behalf of the Italian Society of Colorectal Surgery (SICCR). Tech Coloproctol. 2019; 23:513-528.
  4. Bushara O, Krogh K, Weinberg SE, et al. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Promotes Human Papillomavirus-Mediated Anal Squamous Carcinogenesis: An Immunologic and Pathobiologic Review. Pathobiology. Published online September 14, 2021.
  5. Palefsky J. Human papillomavirus-associated anal and cervical cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2017;12(1):26-30.
  6. Piketty C, Selinger-Leneman H, Grabar S, et al; FHDH-ANRS CO 4. Marked increase in the incidence of invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2008;22(10):1203-1211.
  7. Silverberg M, Lau B, Jing Y, et al. Risk of anal cancer in HIV-infected patients and HIV-uninfected controls in North America. Infect Agents Cancer. 2010;5:A70.
  8. van der Zee RP, Richel O, de Vries HJC, Prins JM. The increasing incidence of anal cancer: can it be explained by trends in risk groups? Neth J Med. 2013;71(8):401-411.
  9. Machalek DA, Poynten M, Jin F, et al. Anal human papillomavirus infection and associated neoplastic lesions in men who have sex with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(5):487-500.
  10. Berry-Lawhorn J. Improved Anal Cancer Outcomes: Is There Light at the End of the Tunnel?. Dis Colon Rectum. 2020;63(10):1343-1346.
  11. Chang G, Berry M, Jay N, Palefsky J, Welton M. Surgical Treatment of High-Grade Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002;45(4):453-458.
  12. Cranston RD, Baker JR, Liu Y, Wang L, Elishaev E, Ho KS.  Topical Application of Trichloroacetic Acid Is Efficacious for the Treatment of Internal Anal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in HIV-Positive Men. Sex Transm Dis. 2014;41(7):420-426.
  13. Richel O, de Vries HJ, van Noesel CJ, Dijkgraaf MG, Prins JM. Comparison of imiquimod, topical fluorouracil, and electrocautery for the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(4):346-353.
  14. Schim van der Loeff M, Mooij S, Richel O, de Vries H, Prins J. HPV and Anal Cancer in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Review. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2014;11(3):250-262.
  15. Topical or ablative treatment in preventing anal cancer in patients with HIV and anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (ANCHOR). Updated October 18, 2021. Accessed November 15, 2021.
  16. Fernandez E. Treating anal cancer precursor lesions reduces cancer risk for people with HIV. UC San Francisco. Published October 8, 2021. Accessed November 13, 2021.

Further Reading